Report on the security situation in Mali

G5 – the key to security

The G5 Sahel or “G5” is plays a crucial role in handling the regional threat of growing terrorism and organized crime, climate challenges and demographic growth in the Sahel. G5 is an essential institutional framework for coordinating and monitoring the regional development, cooperation and security policies of the five members states: Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad. It was established on 16 February 2014. The military element, 10,000 people, has been built on this since 2017, and its creation and deployment was initiated by France in the UN Security Council. All this was supported by the EU, (Germany separately), Russia and China. The G5  was approved by the UN in August 2017.

The involvement of France, Germany and the United Nations

Five days after his inauguration, President E. Macron made his first visit to Mali on 19 May 2017, with a second visit on 2 July 2017. According to the decision of the summit with the five countries of the Sahel, a military contingent with the participation of all five countries, the so-called G5 force is set up. This decision was approved by the UN Security Council. The headquarters of the established military forces are in the north-east of Sévaré, 600 km from Bamako. Its budget is 400 million EUR. Of this, the EU has promised 50 million EUR, France 8 million EUR and African countries 10 million EUR. A donors’ conference was held in Berlin at the end of September 2017.

The task of the G5 forces is to secure their territory against terrorists, better cooperation with the French mission there, BARKHANE (which numbers 5,000 people), and the UN mission MINUSMA (with 15,000 troops). France has already handed over 67 tactical vehicles, communications equipment and personal protective equipment to the G5 forces.

On 1 August 2017, the Defence Ministers of France and Germany paid a joint visit to Mali to promote the establishment of the G5 forces. The G5 forces have been set up, and the financial background has since been established.

The French BARKHANE forces’ offensive in the autumn of 2020 and spring of 2021 achieved significant success in the fight against terrorists in Mali.

It should be noted that the mining sites, mines were never attacked. These sites are in the west and south of the country, while terrorist attacks have taken place mainly in the north and central part of the country. Fortunately, their number is more of a post-defensive struggle in terms of trend.

Major political developments

President I.B. Keita was re-elected in August 2018 for a period of 5 years. The French president and UN Secretary-General were the first to congratulate him, despite the local opposition candidate’s continuing but easing protests. The EU and the UN reinforced their  committed to the stability in Mali.

In the spring of 2020, in Mali, mainly in the capital but also in the countryside, a united opposition movement staged mass demonstrations against the increasingly ill president’s regime. The stalemate resulting from the protests was “resolved” by the army. On August 18, 2020, the middle leadership of the army, the colonels committed a military coup against President Keita. The coup d’Etat was virtually bloodless, power was taken over by the People’s Rescue Council, where the weight of soldiers was decisive. The transition period was set at 18 months.

In September 2020, under pressure from ECOWAS, the President and Prime Minister of the Transitional Period were elected.

According to UN officials, the military takeover has given rise to a “strong regional leadership and a new transition plan, which is a promising sign that the country can escape the“ hell cycle ”of repeated mistrust, violence and a repeated overthrow of the government. The 2015 Peace Plan, the implementation of which has not progressed under Keita, can now gain new momentum.

In February 2021 the G5 summit decided to strengthen cooperation, with more troops arriving in Mali (1,500 more Chadian soldiers). As a new development, Algeria joins the international efforts which is considered as an important contribution to the settlement of the alleviation of the Tuareg tribes in northern Mali and the divisive intentions attributed to them. Algeria’s greater political and military involvement as of April 2021 could help stabilize the whole of Mali by implementing the 2015 peace plan, or a modified version of it.

Article by Mr Laszlo Nikicser

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: